Chomsky cites two x-risks that he thinks "literally threaten species survival":
- Environmental disaster
- Nuclear warfare
As causes of these x-risks, Chomsky blames:
- The propaganda machine
- The system that allows stupid people to have power
Although both threats are legitimate, neither is a major focus area among effective altruists. This could be because those that focus on these two issues tend to be on the far left, while effective altruists tend to be closer toward the political center. The two source problems that Chomsky blames are also legitimate issues but I think those same factors can be blamed for even more x-risks, and maybe for more serious ones.